Working safety in Russia

 
1. Emergency numbers, ex
• Emergency phone nr 911
• Police phone nr 02
• Ambulance nr 03

2. Cards, ex
• Occupational Safety Card (Instructing book)
In the organizations responsibility for observance of rules of labor protection is born by the head (employer). It is obliged to provide:
- safe operation of production buildings, constructions and the equipment, safety of technological processes, and also application of means of collective and individual protection;
- the work and rest modes established by the legislation;
- working condition on each workplace;
- development and performance of actions for labor protection;
- holding preliminary (at revenues to work) and periodic medical examinations according to the legislation;
- carrying out certification of workplaces and production objects on compliance to labor protection requirements;
- supply of workers by special clothes, footwear and other means of individual protection, and also their timely cleaning, washing and repair;
- compensation of the harm done to health of workers, owing to adverse and dangerous working conditions;
- informing of workers about conditions and labor protection on a workplace, about existing risk of damage of health and the means of individual protection put by it, compensations and privileges.
The Instructing book on a workplace is kept on a turn of the office book of the A4 format. The working field for notes consists of 12 points (columns) located at line. If necessary one note can take two and more lines.
Each year is allocated like this: ------------ Year 2014-----------. In each next year numbering begins with number 1. If necessary to refer to the document: "Record No. such year".
Order of filling of columns following:
• Column 1. Serial number.
• Column 2. Date is written in a format dd.mm.yy. In a year one book can be filled, or old will end, and new will begin therefore we write date completely.
• Column 3. The surname, name, middle name of the instructed is written completely - Romanov Ivan Vasilyevich.
• Column 4. Year of birth is written with figures, it is possible with date: 19.08.1987.
• Column 5. Profession, position of the instructed person. We write both a profession, and a position.
• Column 6. Type of instructing: introduction, primary, target, repeated, next (planned), extraordinary (unplanned). We write a type of instructing. For target instructing we specify, in what normative documents it can be (the instructed person).
• Column 7. The reason unplanned (extraordinary, repeated) instructing we specify besides, on the basis of what. We write: "According to the order of the foreman" or "By order of the general director No. from such number".
• Column 8. Surname, initials, position of instructing (allowing). If instructing and allowing – not one person (it is admissible only in exceptional cases, e.g. at accident elimination), we write: "I instructed the such; I allowed such on the basis of so and so".
• Column 9. The signature consists from two subgraph 9.1 instructing and 9.2 instructed. From explanations only – it is impossible to subscribe by a pencil; the signature has to be not erased.
• Columns 10, 11 and 12 are integrated in one nadgraf Training on a workplace. Number of changes with ____ on ____ and training I passed columns 10 and 11 (the signature of the worker) are respectively filled if necessary. The trainee undersigns for column 11. Its signature certifies that he is ready to independent work and completely responsible for itself. Signatures instructed in columns 9.2 and 11 have to coincide.
• Column 12. I checked knowledge, the admission to work made (the signature, date) is filled allowing. If instructing and allowing not one person, signatures in columns 9.1 and 12 can not coincide, but it has to be proved as it is described above.
3. Personal ID card with tax number – we dont have
4. First aid card – general medical insurance
Preliminary medical examinations of workers and employees are carried out at revenues to work, periodic — according to the legislation. Medical inspections are performed by the treatment-and-prophylactic organizations having the corresponding license and the certificate. Inspection by the psychiatrist is performed in psychoneurological clinic.
Medical inspections are performed for the prevention of diseases, accidents and work safety, and also for professional selection on compliance of medical contraindications of this or that profession. Frequency — once in one, two or three years depending on a profession or a sort carried out work.
The direction on medical examination according to the list of harmful, dangerous substances and the production factors making impact on the worker, is handed out by the employer to the worker.
5. Hot work license – Work permit (look The work permit examples)
6. Introduction at construction site The internal labor schedule is established by the legislation and on its basis local acts an order of behavior of workers at work, both in the course of the work, and during breaks in work during stay of workers in the organization territory.
Employment policies and procedures – the local statutory act of the employer regulating according to the Labour code of the Russian Federation and other federal laws an order of reception and dismissal of workers, basic rights, duties and responsibility of the parties of the employment contract, an operating mode, time of rest applied to workers of a measure of encouragement and collecting, and also other questions of regulation of the labor relations.
Employment policies and procedures have to have all organizations. These rules include duties not only workers, but also heads, and not only on execution of Rules, but also the corresponding duty regulations, instructions on labor protection, other safety rules of a production activity, production sanitation, fire, antiradiation safety, etc. Regulations usually consist of the following seven sections:
1) the general provisions providing action of these rules on whom they extend, their purpose, tasks;
2) reception and dismissal order (provisions of the Labour code of the Russian Federation with their specification for this establishment are provided briefly);
3) fundamental obligations of the worker;
4) fundamental obligations of the employer (administration);
5) working hours and its use;
6) encouragement measures for progress in work;
7) disciplinary responsibility for violation of labor discipline.

On character and carrying out time instructing subdivide on 1. Induction briefing 2. Basic training 3. Refresher briefing 4. Extra briefing 5. Target safety training.

Induction briefing carries out with all again employed irrespective of their education, length of service by this profession or a position, with the temporary employees sent, pupils and the students who have arrived to inservice training or practice, and also with pupils in educational institutions before laboratory and practical works in educational laboratories, workshops, sites, ranges.
Induction is carried out by the safety engineer or the person to whom these duties are assigned. About its carrying out the log entry of registration of induction with the obligatory signature of instructed, and also in the document on employment becomes. Book of instructing registration in labor protection have to be strung together, numbered, under seal and the signature of the head.

Basic training on a workplace prior to the beginning of a production activity carry out:
1. all again hired on the enterprise and elevated from one division to another;
2. the workers carring out the new work for them, the temporary employees;
3. the builders carring out installation and construction works in the territory of the enterprise;
4. students and the pupils who have arrived to inservice training or practice before new types of works, and also before studying on each new subject when carrying out practical training.

Refresher briefing is carried out with all workers, except for those who is exempted from primary instructing, at least once a half-year. In coordination with trade-union committee and appropriate authorities of the state supervision for some categories of workers more long can be established (till 1 year) frequency of carrying out repeated instructing. Refresher briefing carry out individually or with group of the workers serving the same equipment, on the program of primary instructing on a workplace in full.
Extra briefing is carried out:
1. with introduction in action of the new or processed standards, rules, instructions on labor protection, and also changes to them;
2. with change of technological process, replacement or modernization of the equipment, adaptations and the tool, initial raw materials, materials and other factors influencing safety of work;
3. with violation working and pupils of safety requirements of work who can bring or led to a trauma, accident, explosion or a fire, poisoning;
4. with the requirement of bodies of supervision;
5. with breaks in work for works to which show additional (raised) safety requirements of work more than for 30 standard days, and for other works — 60 days.

Target safety training carry out when performing the single works which haven't been connected with direct duties in (loading, unloading, territory cleaning, etc.), works on which are made out the work permit, permission and other documents, carrying out excursion at the enterprise, the organizations of mass actions with pupils.

7. Personal protective equipments
Expenses on providing with means of individual protection join in product cost (works, services). At (contract) execution of an employment agreement the employer acquaints workers with Rules of providing workers means of individual protection, and also norms of delivery of means of individual protection to them.
Terms of using are estimated in means of individual protection from the date of the actual delivery to their workers. Thus terms socks of warm special clothes and warm special footwear join also time of its storage in a warm season. Means of individual protection depending on appointment subdivide into classes:
1. Suits isolating
2. Means of protection of respiratory organs
3. Clothes the special protective
4. Means of protection of feet
5. Means of protection of hands
6. Head means of protection
7. Means of protection of the person
8. Eye protections
9. Means of protection of an organ of hearing
10. Means of protection from falling about heights and other preservatives
11. Means the dermatological protective
12. Means of protection complex

8. Scaffoldings
The woods and scaffolding are necessary devices when performing stone works, provide safe working conditions of workers.
All works on the external woods stop during a thunder-storm, strong (more than 6 points) winds when the speed of a wind reaches 12 m/s, and at darkness approach if place of production of works is insufficiently shined.
To work on the woods and a scaffolding are allowed working, familiar with safety regulations on operation of the woods and a scaffolding and passed induction, and also instructing directly on a workplace. Besides, working at the woods and a scaffolding have to be trained in safety regulations in the specialty.
At induction the worker is obliged to study safety regulations as on the specialty, and but operation of the woods, with individual means of protection and first-aid treatment methods in case of accidents.
The workers passing from one object to another, have to pass a repeated personnel safety notification on a workplace. Work on not inventory woods with the permission of the chief engineer of construction is allowed, and "with a height of woods more than 4 m they should be mounted according to the project approved by the chief engineer of construction.

The design of the woods has to be calculated on stability, and separate elements — on durability. Thus load of the woods is accepted for a stone laying of 2500 N/sq.m, for plaster works of 2000 N/sq.m. Horizontal elements of the woods check on the concentrated freight weighing 130 kg (the mass of the person with freight). All inventory woods and scaffolding have to be supplied with the manufacturer passport. It is forbidden to mount and operate the inventory woods and the scaffolding which don't have passports.

The surface on which establish the woods and a scaffolding, has to be equal, free from garbage. If the woods establish directly on soil, the surface of the last has to be planned and stamped, the drainage system has to be arranged. If soil very damp or insufficiently strong, it it is necessary to condense with a trambovaniye with zasypky rubble and a beaten brick. It is forbidden to establish the woods on frost or on a rough surface, and also to level them by means of bricks, stones, scraps of boards and any other casual subjects.

9. Organisation of working safety and environment on construction site
Control of labor protection exercise: at the enterprise as a whole — the head (chief engineer); in shops, on production sites — heads of the relevant divisions.
For the organization of work for labor protection the head of the organization creates work security service (enters a position of the labor protection specialist).
The safety engineer (Service) carries out organizational and methodical work on management of labor protection, preparation of administrative decisions and control of their realization. Directly submits to the head (chief engineer) of the enterprise.
The head of the organization is responsible for the activity of Service. Employees of Service (safety engineer) bear responsibility for performance of the functions determined by the provision on Service and duty regulations.
The main objectives of Security service of work are:
1 . Organization of work for ensuring performance with workers of requirements of labor protection.
2 . Control of observance of laws and other regulations about labor protection, the collective agreement, the agreement on labor protection, other local regulations of the organization.
3 . The organization of scheduled maintenance for injury prevention, occupational diseases and the diseases caused by production factors, and also works on improvement of working conditions.
4 . Informing and consultation of employees of the organization, including her head, concerning labor protection.
5 . Studying and distribution of the best practices on labor protection, promotion of questions of labor protection.

Actions for environmental protection in construction:
1. when conducting earthwork the top vegetable layer (soil) is accurately cut off, stored in dumps and then used for recultivation of territories, and also for parks and squares in the cities;
2. (if necessary) it is required to get number permission for cut of any trees in "Zelenstroy" service
3. it is forbidden to arrange unauthorized dumps of building wastes;
4. it is forbidden to lay self-willedally (to roll) the road outside object;
5. it is forbidden to merge in the sewerage waste of fuels and lubricants, paintwork materials, and also water after washing concrete and the rastvornykh of capacities.
6. It is forbidden to merge also them in ravines, streams, the rivers and lakes;
7. at the organization of a building site it is necessary to provide a normal drainage system about territories and the water admission from the next sites (to exclude formation of mini-lakes or roaring water flows).

10. Unions/organisations
Labor union of workers of construction and industry.
The labor union in the activity relies on the principles of legality, democracy, freedom, voluntariness, self-government, independence, equality, solidarity, publicity.

The labor union is independent in the activity of executive authorities, local governments, employers and their associations, political parties, to them isn't accountable and isn't under control. Relationship with them is under construction on the basis of social partnership, dialogue and cooperation in interests of members of labor union.

The labor union promotes unity of all trade-union movement, cooperating or entering on a voluntary, contractual basis the Russian, international and other trade-union associations and the organizations. Now the Labor union of builders of Russia unites more than 300 thousand workers. In its structure about 2098 primary organizations, working practically in all territory of the Russian Federation. Members of Labor union is: architects, designers, builders, employees of the industry of construction materials – all, whose profession, is anyway connected with the concept "Construction Complex".

The labor union is present where normative legal acts are developed and adopted, interests of each hired worker are infringed. Representatives of Labor union conduct continuous negotiations with authorities, employers and their associations, conclude agreements and collective contracts, control their performance.

The labor union controls performance of the labor legislation in the work sphere, represents interests of workers in government bodies of control, supervision and vessels. The labor union of builders is included into the Federation of Independent Labor Unions of Russia (FILUR), the trade-union unity and solidarity in international scale fixes. He is the member of the International confederation of labor unions of CIS countries (MKP "Builder"), the International federation of employees of the building and woodworking industry (BWI), supports communications with related labor unions of many countries of the world.

11. Links:
http://git07.rostrud.ru/news.shtml/xPages/entry.26623.html
http://ohrana-bgd.narod.ru/tipov.html
http://www.tehbez.ru/
http://dogma.su/
www.Conon.ru
www.stroit.ru
www.stroyPortal.ru